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Human Resource Management HRM FAQs

What is Human Resource Management (HRM)?

Human Resource Management (Human Resources Management / HRM), the upgrade of personnel management, refers to the effective use of relevant human resources inside and outside the organization under the guidance of economics and humanistic ideas through recruitment, selection, training, compensation and other management forms.

 To meet the needs of the organization's current and future development, and to ensure that the organization's goals are realized and that the members' development is maximized. It is the whole process of forecasting the organization's human resource needs and making a human resource plan, recruiting and selecting personnel and effectively organizing, evaluating performance, paying compensation and effective incentives, combining the needs of organizations and individuals for effective development to achieve optimal organizational performance. It is also an important position of the company.

Academia generally divides human resource management into eight modules or six modules:
  1.  Human resource planning
  2.  Recruitment and configuration
  3.  Training and development
  4.  Performance management
  5.  Salary and welfare management
  6.  Labor relationship management. Interpret the core ideas of the six modules of human resource management to help business owners grasp the essence of employee management and human resource management.

Table of Content
    1 Definition
    ▪ One of the definitions
    ▪ Definition 2
    ▪ Definition 3
    2 Course classification
    3 Macro management
    4 Micro management
    5 Strategy types
    6 Discipline development
    ▪ Origin of the concept
    ▪ Development history
    ▪ Development history
    7 Development Trend
    8 Subject System
    ▪ Specific content
    ▪ Core content
    ▪ Working system
    ▪ Planning process
    ▪ Planning objectives
    9 Management work
     ▪ Achieve goals
    ▪ Working characteristics
    ▪ Job system
    ▪ Job responsibilities
    ▪ Five functions
    ▪ Efficiency factor
    ▪ System construction
    ▪ Structural analysis
    ▪ Forecast method
    ▪ Development prospects
    ▪ Related issues
    10 Research methods
    11 University Major
    ▪ Training objectives
    ▪ Training requirements
    ▪ Employment direction
    12 Subject Development
    13 Enterprise Human Resource Management Consulting

Basic Information on HRM

Abbreviation:    HRM
Category:    Management
Change:    HR management
Definition:

1. One of the definitions of Human Resource Management (HRM)

Human resources refers to the sum of the working capacity of people within a certain range, or refers to the sum of intellectual and physical labor that can promote the development of the entire economy and society.

Human resources management refers to the rational allocation of human resources in a planned manner according to the requirements of the company's development strategy. 

Through a series of processes such as recruitment, training, use, evaluation, incentives and adjustment of employees in the enterprise, the enthusiasm of employees is mobilized to play. 

The potential of employees creates value for the enterprise and brings benefits to the enterprise. Ensuring the realization of corporate strategic goals is a series of human resources policies and corresponding management activities of the enterprise.
These activities mainly include the formulation of corporate human resources strategies, employee recruitment and selection, training and development, performance management, salary management, employee mobility management, employee relationship management, employee safety and health management, etc.
That is, the enterprise uses modern management methods to plan, organize, command, control and coordinate human resources acquisition (selection), development (education), maintenance (retention) and utilization (employment).

A series of activities, ultimately achieve a management behavior to achieve corporate development goals.

The 21st century is a century of globalization, marketization, and informationization, and a century dominated by knowledge. Under the new economic conditions, the corresponding changes in enterprise human resource management are bound to happen. Therefore, the enterprise human resources management system will be built on the computer network platform of the Internet to form a new type of human resources management model.

HRM: Human Resource Management

2. Second Human Resource Management HRM

Human resource management refers to the use of modern scientific methods to reasonably train, organize, and allocate manpower combined with a certain amount of material resources, so as to always maintain the best ratio of manpower and material resources. Also, at the same time to carry out appropriate thinking, psychology, and behavior induction, control and coordination. And Also, to give full play to people's subjective initiative, make people do their best, get the best from others, and personnel are suitable to achieve organizational goals.

3. Third Definition of Human Resource Management HRM

Human resource management refers to the process of using scientific methods to coordinate the relationship between people and things, deal with the contradictions between people, give full play to human potential, make people do their best, get the best from others, and match personnel to the process of achieving organizational goals.

After the 20th century, the concept of human resource management was interpreted from different aspects at home and abroad, and can be divided into four categories:
the first sort. Mainly from the purpose of human resources management to explain its meaning, that it is through the management of human resources to achieve its goals.
The second category. It is mainly explained from the process of human resource management or the functions undertaken, and regards human resources as an active process.
The third category. It mainly explains the entity of human resource management, and thinks it is the system and policy related to people.
The fourth category. From the purpose, process and other aspects of comprehensive interpretation.

What are the Sorting Classes of HRM?

Human resource management can also be divided into macro management and micro management.

Macro management

Macro-management of human resources is the planning, organization, and control of human resources in society as a whole, thereby adjusting and improving the status of human resources, adapting them to the requirements of social reproduction, and ensuring the operation and development of social economy.

Micromanagement

Human resources micro-management is to manage the relationship between people and people through the management of people and things in the enterprise and organization, to cooperate with people and things, to give full play to the potential of people, and to plan, organize, and organize various activities of people. Command and control to achieve organizational goals.

What is Secondary Development of Human Resources?

Human resources experts pointed out: World has a huge number of human resources, but the quality is not optimistic. School education is only prepared for knowledge.
To adapt to the requirements of society, these people also need the secondary development and training of human resources by society and organizations. And this includes not only training in skills, but also education in many aspects such as interpersonal communication and code of conduct, social ethics, and so on. For enterprises, professional education is an important part of it.

Small and medium-sized enterprises solve the problem of human resource management, and avoid "headaches and doctor's feet". Enterprises must proceed from the enterprise strategy, break the human-centered "right thought", establish the thing-centered "process thought", and realize the breakthrough thinking from function management to process management. So as to achieve the strategic goals of the enterprise.

HRM Strategy type

1.  Low-cost management strategy

Small and medium-sized enterprises have established production capacity that has reached an effective scale, spared no effort to reduce costs, do well in cost management cost control, and minimize research and development expenses and brand building expenses. 

Through the research on the distribution of small and medium-sized enterprises in most countries, it is found that most small and medium-sized enterprises are concentrated in two types:
One is a decentralized industry, and its basic existence includes service industry, retail industry, wholesale industry, wood processing and metal assembly industry, agricultural products, risk Enterprises, etc. The other category is emerging industries, including IT, NT, new materials and new energy companies.

One of the reasons why SMEs mainly focus on the above two types is that the long-term average cost curve of these industries is a relatively flat stage in terms of scale. Cost reductions for companies of all sizes may be modest.

In this regard, the practices of Japanese companies are worthy of reference.
They design simple products that are easy to manufacture and have market demand, so that cost control becomes feasible. However, the design innovation of simple products needs to increase the initial investment. 

Asia's small and medium-sized enterprises often take the form of imitating others, which may infringe on the intellectual property rights of others, so pay attention to avoid causing additional illegal fees.

2. A centralized management strategy

A centralized management strategy is aimed at a specific customer group, or a segment of a product range, or a market in a certain region. Around the center of how to serve a certain target market well, each performance policy formulated by the company must consider its own market positioning and focus its energy on the target customers to improve efficiency. 

SMEs do not have the necessary and ability to meet most of the market needs. If they compete with the same industry for large customers, SMEs will be at a disadvantage.

 A centralized management strategy can also help reduce costs. It is worth noting that once the target market and product positioning are determined, they should not be changed frequently. Insist on serving their customers often requires companies to dare to refuse the needs of other few customers, and implement the approach of doing something. A centralized management strategy is no longer subject to economies of scale.

Discipline development

What is the Human Resource Management concept origin?

The concept of "human resources" was used in 1919 and 1921 in John R. Commons' two books "Industrial Reputation" and "Industrial Government". Commons is also considered to be the first Using the term "human resources", he refers to human resources that are far from what we understand, but only use the same word.

What is Human Resource Management development path?

Human resource management is an emerging discipline that came out in the late 1970s. Although the history of human resource management is not long, the idea of ​​personnel management has a long history. From the time point of view, the industrial revolution from the end of the 18th century until the 1970s was called the traditional personnel management stage. Since the late 1970s, personnel management has given way to human resource management.

What is the Development History of HRM?

The first generation of human resources management system appeared in the late 1960s. In addition to automatic calculation of personnel compensation, there are few more functions such as report generation and data analysis, and it does not retain any historical information.

The second-generation human resource management system appeared in the late 1970s, and designed non-financial human resource information and salary historical information, as well as primary report generation and data analysis functions.

The third generation of human resources management system appeared in the late 1990s. The database of this generation of HRMS collected and managed almost all data related to human resources, and it also has powerful report generation tools, data analysis tools and information sharing, achieve.

What is Personnel Management stage?

The personnel management stage can be divided into the following stages: scientific management stage, industrial psychology stage, and interpersonal relationship management stage.

(1) Scientific management stage

In the early 20th century, represented by Frederick Winslow Taylor and others, he pioneered the school of scientific management theory and promoted the large-scale promotion and development of scientific management practice in the United States. 

Taylor proposed "piece-rate wage system" and "hourly wage system", and proposed to implement labor quota management. In 1911, Taylor published the book "Principles of Scientific Management", which laid the foundation of the theory of scientific management, and was therefore called "the father of scientific management" by Western management circles.

(2) Industrial psychology stage

The research results of psychologists represented by German psychologist Hugo Munsterberg and others have promoted the scientific process of personnel management. Hugo Munsterberg ’s “Psychology and Industrial Efficiency” published in 1913 marked the birth of industrial psychology.

(3) Interpersonal relationship management stage

In 1929, Harvard University professor Mayo led a research team to the Hawthorne plant of Westinghouse Electric Company to conduct a Hawthorne experiment for nine years.

What is Human resources management stage?

The human resources management stage can be divided into two stages: the proposal of human resources management and the development of human resources management.
The concept of "human resources" was proposed and clearly defined by Peter Drucker, the father of modern management, in his book "Management Practices" as early as 1954. 

Since the 1980s, the theory of human resource management has continuously matured and has been further developed in practice, widely accepted by enterprises, and gradually replaced personnel management. 

In the 1990s, the theory of human resource management continued to develop and mature. People discuss more about how human resource management can serve the company's strategic services, and how the role of the human resources department can be transformed into a strategic partnership of business management. The proposal and development of strategic human resource management theory marks a new stage of modern human resource management.

What is Human Capital Management stage?

Manage people as a type of capital. Human participation in production activities as capital has the following characteristics:
  1.  Human capital can generate profits
  2.  As capital, people can appreciate naturally
  3.  Investment in human capital can generate profits
  4.  As a capital, people participate in the distribution of profits

Human Resource management People Oriented Management stage

What is People-oriented management stage?

People-oriented management is to consider people as the most important factor in business activities and should be considered first. In enterprises, the "God status" of customers is replaced by employees.

The people-oriented management concept is that when the company meets the various needs of employees (such as working environment, salary, respect, etc.), the work efficiency and creativity of employees will be greatly improved, which can make more for the development of the company. Contribution.

What is the development trend in HRM (Human Resource Management)?

From design, publicity to implementation is a complex and systematic work, many of which are difficult to complete independently by the human resources department of an enterprise. This requires the human resources department to carry out effective internal division and external cooperation (this is also the development trend of human resources management), and reposition the functions of the human resources management department:

(1) Weaken some functions of the human resources management department (such as recruitment, promotion and demotion of employees, performance evaluation, etc.) to make it return to the linear management department, directly managed by the direct department, and reintegrated into the general management of the direct management department Among. 

The reason for the emphasis on regression is that functions such as recruitment, promotion and demotion of employees, performance appraisal and other functions initially belonged to the direct management department, and later went through the process of separation from the linear management department before being transformed into the functions of the human resources management department.

(2) Differentiate certain functions of the human resources management department and make them socialized. Certain functions of the enterprise human resources management department, such as training and development, recruitment and selection of senior staff, assessment of employee management capabilities, talent diagnosis, personnel quality assessment, etc., often require the participation of more professional experts and scholars, and require professional knowledge and equipment. 

More specialized channels are needed, which is difficult for an enterprise's human resources management department to complete independently. These functions can be differentiated again and transferred to a socialized professional management consulting company. 

These management consulting companies are generally composed of a large number of actual workers with profound knowledge in human resource management, specializing in human resource management research and consulting (human resource development and management has become an important social industry). They can help companies reduce long-term management costs and enable companies to acquire new management technologies and management ideas.

(3) In addition to the returned and socialized functions, other functions of the human resources management department must be strengthened. For example, by formulating appropriate human resource policies to influence and guide employee behavior. 

Provide support for supporting organizational culture and achieving organizational change; by participating in the organization's strategic decision-making and designing and developing employee careers, to achieve the common growth and development of employees and organizations.

(4) In the era of knowledge economy, it is the general trend of human resources management to establish a system based on energy and distribution according to knowledge. As an effective way to realize the capitalization of human resources, equity incentives have become a strategic measure for more and more non-listed companies to encourage core talents. Jing Bang Xue Bank of China once said so.

HRM Disciplinary system details

Usually includes the following specific content:
(1) Human resources planning.
(2) Post analysis and design.
(3) Staff recruitment and selection.
(4) Performance evaluation
(5) Salary management.
(6) Staff motivation.
(7) Training and development.
(8) Career planning.
(9) Human resources accounting.
(10) Labor relationship management.
There are six main modules of human resources management:
  1. Human resources work planning
  2. Recruitment and configuration
  3. Training and development
  4. Performance management
  5.  Salary and benefits
  6. Labor relations

What is the core content of Human Resource Management?

The core of human resource management: value chain management.
Human resources value chain management includes three aspects:
One is which elements in the enterprise participate in the creation of value, which involves the analysis of value in human resource management.

In the past, agricultural economic society was labor and land, and modern economic society was entrepreneurs, knowledge, capital and labor. Understanding this issue is the foundation of human resource value chain management.

The second is how much value these elements create in the enterprise, which involves the issue of value evaluation in human resource management. What kind of value evaluation standard is adopted and how to conduct value evaluation is one of the most difficult problems in human resource management.

The third is how to distribute the value, including the method of distribution and the standard of distribution.

What is the working system of human resource management?

The structure of human resource management is based on human resource planning and employee management system, and it is reflected through the activities of employing personnel in the specific production and operation process.

Human resource management relationship:

i. The relationship between system formulation and system implementation
ii. The relationship between monitoring, auditing, and execution declaration
iii. To propose the relationship between demand and service provision.

Operation of human resource management system:

1. The manager of the personnel department fills in the "recruitment table for company recruiters" according to the job requirements.
2. Propose the reasons for recruiters' needs, and report the detailed requirements of recruiters and recruitment methods to the chief financial officer for approval.
3. After passing, transfer the "Company Recruitment Demand Form" to the Human Resources Department.
4. The human resources department conducts the primary selection of the recruited personnel.

What is the Planning Process under HRM?

For companies in the human resources department, the leader will hand over the work of setting up the human resources department. What should be included in your report? Can you draw a flow chart of human resource planning?

What are the Planning Objectives under HRM?

1. Obtain and maintain a certain number of personnel with specific skills, knowledge structures and capabilities.
2. Make full use of existing human resources.
3. Ability to predict potential surplus or insufficient manpower in enterprise organizations.
4. Build a well-trained and flexible workforce to enhance the ability of enterprises to adapt to unknown environments.
5. Reduce the dependence of enterprises on external recruitment in key technical links.

Management work

Goals

The goal of human resource management refers to the responsibilities and performance that the human resource management needs to complete. Human resources management must consider both the realization of organizational goals and the personal development of employees, emphasizing the realization of personal all-round development while achieving organizational goals.

The human resources management goals include the goals and tasks of all managers in human resources management and the goals and tasks of the specialized human resources department. Obviously, the two are different. The target tasks of professional human resources departments are not necessarily the human resources management goals and tasks of all managers, but the target tasks of human resources management undertaken by all managers are generally professional human resources The target task that the department should accomplish.

Whether it is a dedicated human resources management department or other non-human resources management departments, the goals and tasks of human resources management, Mr. Zhong Kefeng, a human resources expert believes that it mainly includes the following three aspects:

1. Ensure that the organization's needs for human resources are met to the maximum
2. Maximize the development and management of human resources inside and outside the organization to promote the sustainable development of the organization
3. Maintain and motivate the internal human resources of the organization so that its potential can be maximized, and its human capital can be properly upgraded and expanded.
HRM : Human Resources Management

What are the Working Characteristics under HRM?

Compared with other resources, human resources realize the following basic characteristics:
1. Era and time of human resource generation process
That is to say, the growth and maturity of any human resources are carried out and completed under the conditions of a specific era.
2. The initiative of human resources
Mobility is a fundamental nature of human resources, reflecting the essential difference between human resources and all other resources.
3. Timeliness in the use of human resources
4. Sustainability of the human resources development process
5. Consumability of idle human resources
6. The special capital of human resources
7. Capital of human resources

What is the Job System under Human Resource Management?

HR-Assistant (Human Resources Assistant)
HR-Specialist (Human Resources Specialist)
HR-Officer (Director of Human Resources)
HR-Supervisor (Human Resources Supervisor)
HR-Manager (Human Resources Manager)
HR-Director (Director of Human Resources)

What are the Human Resources management job responsibilities?

Human resource management responsibilities refer to the responsibilities and tasks that human resource managers need to undertake.

In his book "Human Resource Management", Gary Desler cited the responsibilities of a human resource manager of a large company in terms of effective human resource management as the following ten aspects:
(1) Assign the right people to the appropriate jobs
(2) Guide new employees into the organization (familiar with the environment)
(3) Train new employees to adapt to new jobs
(4) Improve the work performance of each new employee
(5) Strive to achieve creative cooperation and establish a harmonious working relationship
(6) Explain company policies and working procedures
(7) Control labor costs
(8) Develop the work skills of each employee
(9) Create and maintain the morale of employees in the department
(10) Protect the health of employees and improve the material environment of work.

What are the 5 main functions under HRM?

(1) Obtain

According to the required employee conditions determined by the company's goals, through planning, recruitment, examinations, evaluation, selection, selection and obtain the personnel required by the company.
Acquisition functions include job analysis, human resource planning, recruitment, selection and use activities.

a. Work analysis: It is the basic work of human resource management. In this process, we must describe the tasks, responsibilities, environment and qualifications of each position, and write a job description.

b. Human resources planning: It is to coordinate the enterprise's demand for the quantity and quality of personnel with the effective supply of human resources. Demand stems from the status quo of the organization ’s work and forecasts of the future, while supply involves internal and external effective human resources.

c. Recruitment and selection: The most suitable recruitment method should be selected according to the attractiveness of the candidates, such as the use of newspaper advertisements, online recruitment, employment agencies, etc. There are many methods for selection, such as the use of job application forms, interviews, testing and evaluation centers.

d. Use: After induction training, arrange work for qualified people.

(2) Integration

Through the effective integration of corporate culture, information communication, harmonious interpersonal relationships, and resolution of conflicts and conflicts, the goals, behaviors, and attitudes of individuals and the masses within the enterprise are in line with the requirements and concepts of the enterprise, so that it forms a high degree of cooperation and coordination Advantages, improve the productivity and efficiency of enterprises.

(3) Keep

Through a series of management activities such as salary, assessment, promotion, etc., to maintain the enthusiasm, initiative and creativity of employees. Safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of workers. Ensure the safety, health and comfortable working environment of employees in the workplace. In order to increase employee satisfaction allow work that makes you feel at ease.

Maintaining functions includes two aspects of activities:
One is to maintain the work enthusiasm of employees, such as fair remuneration, effective communication and participation, and harmonious labor-management relations. 
The other is to maintain a healthy and safe working environment.

a. Remuneration: Formulate a fair and reasonable wage system.

b. Communication and participation: treat employees fairly, clear relationships, communicate feelings, participate in management, etc.

c. Labor-management relations: Handle disputes and affairs in labor-management relations and promote the improvement of labor-management relations.

(4) Evaluation

Make comprehensive assessment, appraisal and evaluation of employees' work results, labor attitudes, skill levels and other aspects to provide a basis for making corresponding rewards and punishments, lifting, leaving and other decisions.

Evaluation functions include job evaluation, performance evaluation, satisfaction survey, etc. Performance evaluation is the core, which is the basis for human resource management and decision-making such as rewards and punishments and promotion.

(5) Development

Through employee training, job enrichment, career planning and development, promote the improvement of employees' knowledge, skills and other aspects, enhance their labor capabilities, and maximize their personal value and contribution rate to the company to reach employees. The purpose of personal and corporate development.

a. Employee training: formulate training plans according to the needs of individuals, jobs, and enterprises, select training methods and methods, and evaluate the effectiveness of training.

b. Career development management: help employees formulate personal development plans, coordinate personal development with corporate development, and meet personal growth needs.

Efficiency factor

First, overall, human resources work should be linked to other elements such as strategy, technology and products.
Second, human resources must drive performance. Promoting the implementation of corporate strategy and business goals is the mission of modern human resource management, so performance management is the hub of promoting human resource management.

System

a. Determine the quality standards of human resources
b. Establish a quality testing system for human resources;
c. Establish a quality assurance system for human resources.

Structural analysis

Human resources planning and policy

Develop and integrate human resource plans and policies to ensure consistency with organizational strategies and support the achievement of company performance goals.

Recruitment and recruitment

Provide timely and effective methods to attract and recruit suitable, experienced, and technical employees to meet organizational requirements.

Salary, benefits and incentives

Provide a salary and benefits framework to motivate higher job performance, ensure the achievement of organizational goals and retention of outstanding talent.

Staff development and training

Assist in developing the necessary capabilities of employees to ensure the achievement of organizational goals and provide a framework to help solve employee problems.

Staff resignation and retirement

Ensure effective management and reasonable cost of employee migration and suspension, and fully address the impact on individual employees.

Information management

Ensure the production of human resource information and process operation are efficient and accurate, and maintain integration with other business systems and processes.

Method of Prediction

1. Management judgment method

The management personnel judgment method, that is, the management personnel at all levels of the enterprise, based on their own experience and directness, determine the personnel required in the future from the bottom up. This is a superficial manpower demand forecasting method, which is mainly suitable for short-term forecasting.

2. Empirical prediction method

The empirical forecasting method is also called ratio analysis, which is to forecast the demand for human resources based on past experience.

Because different people's experience will be different, the abilities of different new employees will also be different, especially the management staff and sales staff, the differences in abilities and performance are even greater. Therefore, if this method is used to predict the needs of personnel, we must pay attention to the accumulation of experience and the accuracy of the prediction.

3. Delphi method

The Delphi method is a structured method that allows experts to agree on developments that affect a certain area of ​​the organization (such as the organization’s future demand for labor). The goal of this method is to predict the development trend of a certain field by integrating the opinions of experts. 

Specifically, the Human Resources Department acts as an intermediary, gathers the individual opinions of the experts in the first round of the forecast and summarizes them, then feeds them back to them, and then repeats this cycle to give the experts the opportunity to modify their forecasts and Explain the reason for the modification.

Generally, after repeating 3 to 5 times, the opinions of the experts tend to be consistent.

The experts mentioned here can be managers from the front line or senior managers. They can be internal or externally invited. The choice of experts is based on their knowledge of the internal factors that affect the company.

4. Trend analysis

The basic idea of ​​this quantitative analysis method is to determine which factor in the organization is most closely related to the number and structure of labor, and then find out the trend of this factor changing with the number of employees, and infer the future human resources needs.

Choosing organizational factors related to the number of labor is a key step in demand forecasting. This factor should meet at least two conditions: first, the organizational factor should be directly related to the basic characteristics of the organization.
Secondly, the change of the selected factor must be proportional to the change in the number of required personnel. With the organizational factors and labor productivity related to the number of people hired, we can estimate the quantity of labor demand.

When using the trend analysis method to make predictions, it can be estimated completely based on experience, or a regression analysis can be performed using a computer.

The so-called regression analysis method is to use historical data to find out the relationship between one or several organizational factors and human resource requirements, and express this relationship with a mathematical model. With this mathematical model, you can speculate on the future human resources. demand. However, this process is relatively complicated and requires the use of a computer.

Prospects

1. Changes in talent. Future talents, especially graduate students, will not only learn professional knowledge in the school, but also learning ability and research methods, that is to say, they can quickly enter a new field and adapt to this new field. A non-student major can quickly enter the role of a new major.

2. The concept of lifelong learning has begun to penetrate into university education. What graduates learn in universities is not limited to professional knowledge, but a wide range of knowledge, and they can quickly enter other professional fields after graduation.

3. In the future, the organization pays more attention to the staff's ability to innovate instead of repeating the original work and skills. Personnel from different professions, especially university students, graduate students have extensive knowledge, multi-faceted knowledge is a prerequisite for innovation.

From this point of view, the future human resources management paradigm no longer focuses on recruiting people who are "mature" for the organization, but people with extremely innovative capabilities. In other words, human experience and professional requirements are no longer the most important. The most important thing is to have extensive knowledge and awareness of innovation.

Under this change, the paradigm of human resource management should also change, and the original focus should be on what kind of people are recruited to how to encourage the recruited people to realize their innovative potential.

State-owned enterprise
There is a problem

1.1 The concept of human resources development and management is backward

For a long time, under the influence of the planned economic system, state-owned enterprises have been under the state ’s macro-control. They only focus on solving the internal material, capital, and technical issues of the enterprise and ignore the human resources of the enterprise.

Considering people as inherent labor force, only focusing on owning and using, and not paying attention to development and flow, make talents neither enter nor flow out, and the phenomenon of idle, suppressed, and waste of talents is serious.

1.2 Insufficient investment in human capital

Human capital investment is an investment in which investors increase or increase human intelligence and physical fitness by investing a certain amount of capital (monetary capital or in kind) in people. This increase in labor force is ultimately reflected in an increase in labor output.

The managers of state-owned enterprises in our country lack the investment consciousness of human capital and only care about the immediate (replenishment of personnel for the enterprise, payment of wages, etc.). 

Rarely do long-term human resource forecasting, planning and development. In this way, some excellent employees who are eager to learn new skills and knowledge have no access to training; the incomplete and opaque training system of state-owned enterprises has also encouraged some related people to seize these opportunities; and some training is formal. The content is boring, and the assessment deviates from reality, and the purpose of training is not really achieved.

1.3 Single management model, centralized management authority, highly centralized management system

a. The state-owned enterprise has a huge organization, and various departments and industries cannot classify, flexibly and effectively, and manage cadres in a targeted manner according to the nature and difficulty of their respective business work, resulting in separation of responsibilities and management, and disconnecting management from personnel. Lead to disconnection between people and things. 

Secondly, the state-owned enterprises have excessively concentrated powers, strengthen the "will of senior officials", and neglect system construction. Thirdly, the highly centralized management system of state-owned enterprises hinders the role of the competition mechanism. On the one hand, the employment of “iron rice bowls”, cadres “iron exchange chairs”, and distribution of “big pot rice” restrict competition and the display of individual talents. 

On the other hand, the planned economy period strengthened individual obedience to the collective, which inhibited individual autonomy, independence, and selectivity.

b. Under the current situation, the countermeasures to improve the level of human resources management in state-owned enterprises.
In order to cope with economic globalization and fierce competition in the international market, a country's human resource management must adopt effective measures and means such as planning, organization, leadership, supervision, agreement, control, etc., not only to consider the needs and talents of talents, but also focus on the future. There is need to pay attention to the planning and development of human resources. 

Enterprises should not aim at saving in their budgets, but like investing in capital or information, they seek the best ratio of input to output in a specific period, that is, they also pursue high efficiency and high returns. Therefore, the author believes that under the current situation, improving the human resources management of state-owned enterprises

Solution

1. To establish the scientific management concept of "people-oriented" and realize the optimal allocation of human resources.

2. Emphasis on the development of human resources investment and human capital investment The fundamental way for the development, development and improvement of talents in state-owned enterprises lies in enterprise education and training. Optimizing corporate education and training means that companies must invest higher capital, higher efficiency and quality.

3. Establish a flexible competition mechanism State-owned enterprises should change the “iron rice bowl” of employment and distribute the “big pot of rice”, fundamentally exclude competition and the play of individual talents and the realization of personal interests.
Truly realize the open, fair and equitable employment autonomy to make enterprises introduce people who are in need. Eliminate surplus people. Establish a flexible competition mechanism in which cadres can go up and down, and employees can enter and leave, invigorate the enterprise, improve production efficiency, make excellent talents have a place. Allow them to work in positions suitable for them.

 It has been developed to create more profits for enterprises. Human resource management is the core of modern enterprise management. As the pillar industry of the national economy, state-owned enterprises must fully implement and formulate corrective measures. On the other hand, they should provide dynamic information on budget execution to management at all levels to guide business decisions.

What is Drawer Management?

In modern management, it is also called "job analysis". Today, some large and medium-sized enterprises in economically developed countries attach great importance to "drawer-style" management and job classification, and all have established job classification systems to varying degrees on the basis of "drawer-style" management. 
According to survey statistics: Thailand adopted 50% of the enterprises that adopted "drawer" management in 1981. It was 75% in 1985 and more than 95% in 1999. 
In recent years, large and medium-sized enterprises in Hong Kong have also generally implemented "drawer-style" management.

"Drawer-style" management is a popular image of management term. It describes that there is a clear job specification in the drawer of each manager ’s desk. In the management work, there must be no positions, no rights, nor Responsibility has no power, let alone power without responsibility, and must combine duties, responsibilities, rights and interests.

What is One Minute Management?

"One minute" management Many western enterprises have adopted the "one minute" management rule, and achieved remarkable results. The specific contents are: one-minute goal, one-minute praise and one-minute punishment.

The so-called one-minute goal is that everyone in the company clearly writes down his main goals and responsibilities on a piece of paper. Each goal and its test criteria should be clearly expressed in 250 words, and one person can read it in one minute. In this way, it is easy for everyone to clearly understand why and how to do it, and regularly check their work accordingly.

One minute of praise is human resource incentives. The specific method is that the manager of the company often spends a short time, picking out the right part of the work done by the staff to praise. This can prompt each employee to know what they are doing and work harder, so that their behavior continues to develop in the perfect direction.

One-minute punishment means that something should be done well, but it is not done well. The relevant personnel are first criticized in a timely manner, pointing out their errors, and then reminding him how you value him, and he is dissatisfied at this time and place jobs.
 In this way, people who do wrong can be willing to accept criticism, feel guilty and pay attention to avoid the same mistake.

The "one minute" management rule is wonderful because it greatly shortens the management process and has an immediate effect. A one-minute goal makes it easy for each employee to clarify their job responsibilities and strive to achieve their own work goals.
One-minute praise can make each employee work harder and make their behavior tend to be perfect. 
One-minute punishment can make the wrongdoing People are willing to accept criticism, prompting him to work more seriously in the future.
HRM Personnel or Employee Management

What is Broken Format Management?

In many managements of enterprises, the ultimate goal of reform and innovation is through the management of personnel. Therefore, all developed companies in the world are actively implementing the reform of the personnel management system according to the changes in the internal competition situation of the enterprise to stimulate the creativity of employees.

In Japanese and Korean companies, in the past, the "year-old system" that used working years as promotion of staff ranks and salary standards has been adopted. This system adapts to the requirements of employees in the period of rapid expansion of enterprises, and provides labor employment and development. opportunity. 

Since the 1980s, these developed enterprises have entered a stage of low growth and relative stability. The "year-old system" has been unable to satisfy the staff's desire for promotion, which has reduced the vitality of enterprise organization personnel. 

Since the early 1990s, developed companies in Japan and South Korea have begun to reform the personnel system, and vigorously promoted a new "broken-form" personnel system that determines the promotion and demotion of employees based on work capabilities and results. 

The reform of the personnel system of the world's largest enterprises focuses on fully tapping the potential of people, in order to invigorate the personnel system to invigorate the organizational structure of the enterprise, pay attention to the cultivation and formation of the "strongman" mechanism within the enterprise, and form a competitive, hardworking, enterprising and pioneering new ambience.

What is Harmony Management?

"Harmony" management "Harmony" means that management must emphasize the cooperation of the individual and the whole, creating a high degree of harmony between the whole and the individual. In management, European and American companies mainly emphasize individual struggle, and promote the harmonious use of different management.

Its specific characteristics are:
(1) There is both integrity and individuality. Every member of the enterprise has a sense of mission to the company. "I am the company" is a loud slogan in "harmonious" management.

(2) Self-organization. Let go and let subordinates make decisions and manage themselves.

(3) Volatility. Modern management must implement a flexible business strategy to produce progress and innovation in volatility.

(4) Complement each other. It is necessary to promote the complementary exchange of different views and practices so that the shortcomings in one case become the advantages in another.

(5) Individual dispersion and overall coordination. Units, groups, and individuals in an organization are all individuals in the whole. Individuals are decentralized and original, and form an overall image through coordination.

(6) There is Rhythm. A harmonious, harmonious and vibrant atmosphere is reached between the enterprise and the individual, inspiring people's internal drive and pride.

What is Walking management?

"Walk-around" management This is an innovative management method popular in the world. It mainly refers to the enterprise executives to observe the public opinion, understand the truth, and work together with the subordinates to create performance. 

This management style has shown its advantages, such as:
(L) The subordinates in charge also moved. Toshiba Toshiba, the honorary chairman of the Federation of Japanese Economic Organizations, adopted the approach of “being a leader” and became a prestigious entrepreneur in Japan. 

Before he took over the Japanese Toshiba Electric Company, Toshiba no longer enjoyed the reputation of “cradle of the electrical industry”. It's getting worse. After taking office, XYZ visited the factory every day and visited Toshiba's factories and enterprises in Japan.
In the early morning, he always arrived half an hour earlier than others, stood at the factory door, said hello to the workers, and took the lead in demonstrating. Employees were affected by this atmosphere, which promoted mutual communication and boosted morale. Soon, Toshiba's production returned to normal and has developed greatly.

(2) Small investment and large income. Moving management does not require too much capital and technology, it may increase the productivity of the enterprise.

(3) Visible management. That is to say, the top supervisor can reach the front line of production, meet and talk with the workers, hoping that the employees can give him opinions, know him, and even argue with him.

(4) On-site management. Why does Japan have the world's best productivity? Some people think that it is based on the on-site management of the investigation. The supervisor went to the scene non-stop every day, and the subordinates had to lay down their lives with the gentleman!

(5) "People who win popular support". Excellent corporate leaders often go to employees who are several levels below him to observe the public opinion, understand the truth, and listen to more "wrong" than just "good". Not only should they care about the work of their employees, to call out their names, but also their clothes, food and housing. In this way, employees feel that supervisors attach importance to them and work naturally is very hard. With the support and efforts of employees, an enterprise will naturally prosper.

What are the Research Methods under HRM?

(1) Common quantitative research methods

1. Related analysis

Correlation analysis is to measure the degree of correlation between two or more variables.

2. Regression analysis

The purpose of regression analysis is to use the relationship between two or more variables to infer unknown variables with known variables.

3. Discriminant analysis

The purpose of discriminant analysis is to determine the factors that can divide a population into two or more categories.

4. Time series analysis

Time series analysis is a variant of regression analysis, but in time series analysis, independent variables are expressed in terms of time. It also has independent variables and dependent variables. The difference is that independent variables are related to time and dependent variables are related to demand. Time series analysis is a very helpful technique for forecasting.

(2) Common research design methods

1. Field Survery

The on-site survey method, as the name implies, is that the researchers follow the natural sequence of things on the spot to use surveys and tests to collect data related to the variables, and then analyze the relationship between the variables.

2. Case Study

Case study refers to a research design method in which researchers collect data by consulting records, interviews, observations, etc. to analyze the root causes of specific problems that exist in a specific person or group such as a factory, a department or a working group.

3. Lab Experiment

Laboratory experiments are research methods conducted by researchers in the laboratory.

4. Field experiment

Field experiment is different from laboratory experiment. It is a method of studying the relationship between variables by manipulating one or several variables in a constantly changing real environment.

(3) Common data collection methods

1. Observation method

Observation method refers to a method of collecting research data by using sensory organs or other tools to investigate specific behaviors within a certain period of time.

2. Interview

The interview method is a method for the researcher to collect data by talking with the research object. It is one of the most commonly used methods in human resource management research, and is also an effective method for collecting data. The interview method is generally conducted in the form of individual or group.

3. Questionnaire method

The questionnaire method is a method to collect information and data from the research subjects in a written form with strictly designed psychological test questions or projects.

What are the basic elements of a standardized human resource management system?

For private enterprises, building a standardized human resource management system in enterprise management must effectively grasp the following major elements:

1. It is necessary to scientifically establish an employee career planning mechanism and cast employees' "goal":

The purpose of career planning and design of enterprise employees in enterprise management is to adapt to the long-term strategic development of the enterprise. Also, to let employees understand the relationship between employees' personal career and enterprise development, and set it on the premise of taking into account the interests of the enterprise and the personal interests of employees. 

Personal goals, to achieve the same goals and behaviors between employees and enterprises, to start a business together, to share success, and to develop a career in accordance with their own specific circumstances, so as not to cause the loss of talent.

2. To establish a corporate political work culture to strengthen employees' "identity":
If an enterprise wants sustainable development, it must constantly improve its business management system and corporate culture. 

The enterprise management system is hardware, and the culture is software, which is also the soul of the enterprise. In this regard, in order to shape their own cultural image, some enterprises have summed up a set of business philosophy or entrepreneurial spirit without the actual situation of enterprise management. However, because these ideas or spirits are not recognized by employees at all, this corporate culture has actually become an empty talk that deviates from the reality of the company. 

Although it may have a temporary packaging effect for external uninformed persons, it is undoubtedly “fancy” for the enterprise itself. Therefore, a set of values ​​accepted by enterprise employees is very important for enterprise management. 

Refining enterprise employees' "identified corporate culture" to establish a republican corporate political work culture can help corporate employees establish common ideals and beliefs. So as to work hard for the common goal, through this way, the company can get a healthy and stable development.

3. To establish a performance-focused compensation and benefits management system to ensure the "belonging" of talents:
Considering the long-term development of an enterprise, enterprise management must establish a standardized system and operating procedures. When an enterprise grows up, it cannot rely only on products but on systems.

Simply paying high wages to talents has proved to be less effective and should be used effectively. Such companies always have no interest in talents. Therefore, it is necessary to make some changes in modern enterprise management to make them more clearly as the company grows. 

Seeing hope, Some companies implement excellent welfare systems in corporate management, including bonuses, profit commissions, shares, etc. to attract talent, but these conditions are not available at one time, but require an inspection cycle. Only after you have worked for a certain number of years to meet the requirements of the company it can really be realized.

 The above two items are hailed as "gold handcuffs" for enterprises to retain elite talents, and their practical value is considerable. For the core talents of the enterprise, through the stock option, the enterprise can become a community of interests for everyone, and the talents can become the masters of the enterprise, so that they can share the benefits of the enterprise in the long run, which can better ensure the talents' sense of belonging.

Modern enterprises will face increasingly severe competition, which is both a challenge and an opportunity. The only way to stand out from the competition is to fully develop and scientifically manage human resources, so as to guide the enterprise to continue to succeed.

"Boss" magazine said that to manage this special scarce resource in enterprise management, enterprise managers must change their ideas ideologically, clarify the goals of human resource management and the relationship with the company's management environment, overall strategy, and corporate culture. Only in this way can the enterprise get more long-term and stable development.

University major

Training objectives

This major trains to meet the needs of socialist economic and social development, comprehensive development of morality, intelligence, physical fitness and beauty.
It possesses knowledge and ability in management, economy, law and human resource management.
It adapts to the requirements of the era of knowledge economy.
Wide, comprehensive and high-quality, full of innovative consciousness and pioneering spirit, can be applied senior professional talents who can work in human resources management and related administrative management in state organs, enterprises and institutions, scientific research institutions, various state-owned and non-state-owned enterprises.

What are the HRM Training requirements?

Students of this major mainly study basic theoretical knowledge such as management science and economics, as well as basic theoretical knowledge and management modules related to human resource management, receive training in human resource management methods and skills, and have the basic ability and quality to analyze and solve human resource management problems.

Graduates should acquire the following knowledge and abilities:

1. Master the basic theory and basic knowledge of management, economics and human resource management

2. Master the professional skills of human resource management (recruitment, quality assessment, training, career management, performance management, salary management, labor relationship management)

3. Strong basic skills in language and text expression, interpersonal communication, organization, coordination and leadership

4. Familiar with the policies, policies and regulations related to human resource management

5. Understand the theoretical frontier and development trends of this discipline

6. Master the basic methods of document retrieval and data query, with certain scientific research and practical work ability.

What is the Direction of career under HRM?

Enterprises and institutions and their consulting institutions are involved in human resources management related positions, engaged in recruitment, human resource development, assessment, salary management, employee training, office secretarial work and so on.

Human Resource Management Discipline development

Human resources management is an extremely important field of work with a bright future. In many foreign ERP software systems, HR is a very independent piece. In the process of implementing ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning), the HR part is handled by a dedicated HR consultant.

Human resource management Many domestic enterprises have made the wrong positioning of human resource management, often changing the past personnel department into a brand to become a human resources department. 

In fact, the biggest difference between the human resources department and the human resources management department is that in addition to being responsible for recruitment and management of personnel files, the human resources department is an important task to account for human costs, provide the financial department with a basis for human costs, and according to its own Data is used to evaluate the performance of personnel. In addition, employee training is also an important task of the human resources department.

Now that you have chosen this major, I hope you can spend some time on corporate financial management, especially labor costs.
In addition, there are also plenty of articles on the selection of talents. For example, for the formulation of assessment standards for recruiters, emphasis should be placed on competence rather than academic qualifications. certification should be emphasized instead of diplomas, etc.

If you want to do a good job of HRM, read more books on enterprise strategic management, and mainly in Europe and the United States.
Of course, look more at the HRM works in Europe and America to expand your horizons. In China, only a few people such as Peng Jianfeng have some meaning. If possible, learn about company financial management (not accounting).

In this new era of "talent is everything", many companies will use unprecedented efforts to seek and retain talent, and the importance of human resource management is becoming increasingly apparent. 

Facing the challenges and impacts of economic globalization, information networking, social knowledge, and organizational changes, human resource management is facing another adjustment and change:

1. Weakening of the functions of the human resources management department: For example, in the recruitment process, the interview, recruitment and starting salary are determined more and more by the head of the employment department directly.

2. The division of human resources functions: With the further deepening of the market economy, the social division of labor has become more and more detailed, and companies will outsource some non-core business of human resources.

3. Strengthening of human resource management: Accurately formulate human resource policies to influence and guide employees' behavior, provide guarantees for the realization of organizational change, participate in corporate strategic decisions and formulate human resource strategies, and help employees design careers so that employees and the company can grow together with development of each other.

4. Automation of human resource management: More and more companies will hand over job selection, attendance management, salary and welfare and social insurance to the computer, so that they have more energy to focus on the management of core human resources business.

Limited to China's national conditions and the actual situation of current enterprises, most enterprises are currently unlikely to outsource human resources related functions. 

Therefore, in recent years, the development trend of domestic human resources is that more and more enterprise managers will use the power of science and technology to adopt human resources management information solutions to strengthen human resources management of enterprises, in order to improve organizational capabilities, The role of promoting the realization of strategic goals.

The employment prospect is broad: Human resources management division

In today's globalization of talent competition, the work of human resource development and management is particularly important. Doing a good job of people has become a prerequisite for winning the entire world, and the development of human resource managers' ability has become a matter of development.
An important project for national Bole talents. Human resources managers are mainly responsible for the company's human resources planning, employee recruitment and selection, performance evaluation, compensation and benefits, training and development, labor relationship coordination and other work.

The criteria for judging whether it is qualified are: 
Understanding the professional knowledge of human resources, being able to complete the actual management of human resources, and continuously developing human resources and creating value.

The status quo is worrying

The essential attributes of a market economy are competitiveness and efficiency. Fundamentally stipulate a single type of knowledge structure or skill structure for talents, which cannot meet the needs of the market and must be compound. 

The professional knowledge of human resources practitioners in our country is very scarce. According to the survey, many of them are of administrative origin. 

In recent years, colleges and universities have set up human resources majors, but these graduates and market needs are still in great demand. gap. This is reflected in the low level of internationalization of the human resources team and the shortage of international general talents. 

Under the background of joining the WTO, the quality of China's human resources team not only urgently needs to be improved vigorously overall, but also to achieve three major strategic transformations: from reproducible quality to pioneering and innovative quality. 

From internally oriented quality to outwardly oriented, The transformation of international universal quality; the transformation from a single quality to a compound quality.

Large market gaps generate high income

According to a survey by authoritative institutions, there are more than 6 million human resources professionals in China, including 400,000 in Beijing, 600,000 in Shanghai, 500,000 or more in Guangzhou, and 300,000 in Wuhan. Corresponding to the huge market gap, the salary of human resource managers is also very high. 

According to the survey, the salary of the human resources director of large group companies is generally 10,000 to 15,000 yuan or as high as 18,000 to 20,000 yuan (generally 15,000 Yuan fluctuates); salary managers, recruitment managers, etc. are generally between 6,000 yuan and 12,000 yuan (generally fluctuating around 8,000 yuan). In such a salary standard, the salary level of human resources managers is generally 12,000 yuan Floating from side to side, the maximum is not more than 15,000 yuan, the minimum is not less than 8,000 yuan.

HRM Certificate exams are heating up

In this form, Vocational Qualification Certificate for Enterprise Human Resources Management has gradually become one of the top ten popular certification exams in recent years. Obtaining this certificate can not only be used nationwide, it is effective for life, but also promotes the rapid improvement of individuals Self-career development ability. 

With the development of the vocational qualification exams above the teacher level, the attractiveness of this subject has further increased. This year, a large number of people are preparing to participate in the qualification assessment of human resources management at all levels.

Enterprise human resource management consulting

At present, enterprise human resource management consulting is mainly to formulate human resource planning for the enterprise, that is, to combine and analyze the development strategy and business plan of the enterprise, collect and analyze information and data on the supply and demand of human resources inside and outside the enterprise. Also, evaluate the amount of human resources in the organization, quality, management status and development trends.
Formulate enterprise human resources plans, put forward human resources recruitment, deployment, training, development, assessment, incentives, compensation and benefits design strategies and measures.

The content and future tracking directions of enterprise human resource management consulting include: mastering the theoretical knowledge of human resource management, mastering the common forecasting methods of the number and structure of personnel such as business analysis method, budget control method, industry proportional method, benchmarking method, etc.

The main work of enterprise human resources management, enterprise organization structure, post setting principles and personnel recruitment and deployment, training and development, assessment and incentives, compensation and benefits design, employee relationship strategies. Tracking the latest domestic and foreign human consulting management theory and methods. Understand the human resources management ideas of international and domestic first-class enterprises.



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